The simplest animals that are bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic (composed of three fundamental cell layers) are the Platyhelminthes, the flatworms. Flatworms have no body cavity other than the gut (and the smallest free-living forms may even lack that!) and lack an anus; the same pharyngeal opening both takes in food and expels waste. Because of the lack of any other body cavity, in larger flatworms the gut is often very highly branched in order to transport food to all parts of the body. The lack of a cavity also constrains flatworms to be flat; they must respire by diffusion, and no cell can be too far from the outside, making a flattened shape necessary.